This page shows a very simple wxWidgets program that can be used as a skeleton for your own code.
While it does nothing very useful, it introduces a couple of important concepts and explains how to write a working wxWidgets application.
First, you have to include wxWidgets' header files, of course. This can be done on a file by file basis (such as
wx/window.h) or using one global include (
wx/wx.h) which includes most of the commonly needed headers (although not all of them as there are simply too many wxWidgets headers to pull in all of them). For the platforms with support for precompiled headers, as indicated by
WX_PRECOMP, this global header is already included by
wx/wxprec.h so we only include it for the other ones:
The main window is created by deriving a class from wxFrame and giving it a menu and a status bar in its constructor. Also, any class that wishes to respond to any "event" (such as mouse clicks or messages from the menu or a button) must declare an event table using the macro below.
Finally, the way to react to such events must be done in "event handlers" which are just functions (or functors, including lambdas if you're using C++11) taking the
event parameter of the type corresponding to the event being handled, e.g. wxCommandEvent for the events from simple controls such as buttons, text fields and also menu items. In our sample, we react to three menu items, one for our custom menu command and two for the standard "Exit" and "About" commands (any program should normally implement the latter two). Notice that these handlers don't need to be neither virtual nor public.
In order to be able to react to a menu command, it must be given a unique identifier which can be defined as a const variable or an enum element. The latter is often used because typically many such constants will be needed:
Notice that you don't need to define identifiers for the "About" and "Exit" as wxWidgets already predefines and the standard values such as wxID_ABOUT and wxID_EXIT should be used whenever possible, as they can be handled in a special way by a particular platform.
As in all programs there must be a "main" function. Under wxWidgets main is implemented inside wxIMPLEMENT_APP() macro, which creates an application instance of the specified class and starts running the GUI event loop. It is used simply as:
As mentioned above, wxApp::OnInit() is called upon startup and should be used to initialize the program, maybe showing a "splash screen" and creating the main window (or several). As frames are created hidden by default, to allow creating their child windows before showing them, we also need to explicitly show it to make it appear on the screen. Finally, we return true from this method to indicate successful initialization:
In the constructor of the main window (or later on) we create a menu with our menu items as well as a status bar to be shown at the bottom of the main window. Both have to be associated with the frame with respective calls.
Notice that we don't need to specify the labels for the standard menu items
wxID_EXIT, they will be given standard (even correctly translated) labels and also standard accelerators correct for the current platform making your program behaviour more native. For this reason you should prefer reusing the standard ids (see Stock Items) if possible.
We also have to actually connect our event handlers to the events we want to handle in them, by calling Bind() to send all the menu events, identified by wxEVT_MENU event type, with the specified ID to the given function. The parameters we pass to Bind() are
thisfor this object itself, but we could call a member function of another object too. And we could could also use a non-member function here, and, in fact, anything that can be called passing it a wxCommandEvent could be used here.
Here are the standard event handlers implementations. MyFrame::OnExit() closes the main window by calling Close(). The parameter true indicates that other windows have no veto power such as after asking "Do you really want to close?". If there is no other main window left, the application will quit.
MyFrame::OnAbout() will display a small window with some text in it. In this case a typical "About" window with information about the program.
The implementation of custom menu command handler may perform whatever task your program needs to do, in this case we will simply show a message from it as befits a hello world example:
Here is the entire program that can be copied and pasted: