The wxMBConv classes in wxWidgets enable an Unicode-aware application to easily convert between Unicode and the variety of 8-bit encoding systems still in use.
As programs have become more and more globalized, and users are exchanging documents across country boundaries as never before, applications need to take into account the different letters and symbols in use around the world. It is no longer enough to just depend on the default byte-sized character sets that computers have traditionally used.
The Unicode standard is the solution to most tasks involving processing and exchanging text in arbitrary languages. Unicode is able to contain the complete set of characters used in all languages of the world in one unified global coding system.
Unicode text can be represented in various encodings, one of the most commonly used being UTF-8. UTF-8 along with UTF-7 are so-called "compatibility encodings", which exist to facilitate the migration from old 8-bit encodings to Unicode. Despite the wide adoption of Unicode, a number of legacy systems out there still depends on the old 8-bit encodings.
Sending Unicode data from one Unicode-aware system to another, e.g. through a network connection or regular files, is typically done by encoding the data into a multibyte encoding; usually UTF-8.
If you have compiled wxWidgets in Unicode mode, the wxChar type will become identical to wchar_t rather than char, and a wxString stores wxChars. Hence, all wxString manipulation in your application will then operate on Unicode strings, and almost as easily as working with ordinary char strings (you just need to remember to use the wxT() macro to encapsulate any string literals).
But often, your environment doesn't want Unicode strings. You could be sending data over a network, or processing a text file for some other application. You need a way to quickly convert your easily-handled Unicode data to and from a traditional 8-bit encoding. And this is what the wxMBConv classes do.
The base class for all these conversions is the wxMBConv class (which itself implements standard libc locale conversion). Derived classes include wxMBConvLibc, several different wxMBConvUTFxxx classes, and wxCSConv, which implement different kinds of conversions. You can also derive your own class for your own custom encoding and use it, should you need it. All you need to do is override the MB2WC and WC2MB methods.
Several of the wxWidgets-provided wxMBConv classes have predefined instances (wxConvLibc, wxConvFileName, wxConvUTF7, wxConvUTF8, wxConvLocal). You can use these predefined objects directly, or you can instantiate your own objects.
A variable, wxConvCurrent, points to the conversion object that the user interface is supposed to use, in the case that the user interface is not Unicode-based (like with GTK+ 1.2). By default, it points to wxConvLibc or wxConvLocal, depending on which works best on the current platform.
The wxCSConv class is special because when it is instantiated, you can tell it which character set it should use, which makes it meaningful to keep many instances of them around, each with a different character set (or you can create a wxCSConv instance on the fly).
The predefined wxCSConv instance, wxConvLocal, is preset to use the default user character set, but you should rarely need to use it directly, it is better to go through wxConvCurrent.
Once you have chosen which object you want to use to convert your text, here is how you would use them with wxString. These examples all assume that you are using a Unicode build of wxWidgets, although they will still compile in a non-Unicode build (they just won't convert anything).
Example 1: Constructing a wxString from input in current encoding.
Example 2: Input in UTF-8 encoding.
Example 3: Input in KOI8-R. Construction of wxCSConv instance on the fly.
Example 4: Printing a wxString to stdout in UTF-8 encoding.
If you have specialized needs, or just don't want to use wxString, you can also use the conversion methods of the conversion objects directly. This can even be useful if you need to do conversion in a non-Unicode build of wxWidgets; converting a string from UTF-8 to the current encoding should be possible by doing this:
Here, cMB2WC of the UTF8 object returns a wxWCharBuffer containing a Unicode string. The wxString constructor then converts it back to an 8-bit character set using the passed conversion object, *wxConvCurrent. (In a Unicode build of wxWidgets, the constructor ignores the passed conversion object and retains the Unicode data.)
This could also be done by first making a wxString of the original data:
To print a wxChar buffer to a non-Unicode stdout:
If you need to do more complex processing on the converted data, you may want to store the temporary buffer in a local variable:
If a conversion had taken place in cWX2MB (i.e. in a Unicode build), the buffer will be deallocated as soon as tmp_buf goes out of scope. The macro wxWX2MBbuf reflects the correct return value of cWX2MB (either char* or wxCharBuffer), except for the const.